Г¶sel Birch Katalog Technik & Anwendung
, ee; Birch, Num. 5; Намибии, Op. sel. p. Дано/Г p. 67 nr. und над-(шт 0p. p. 78 = llIi. S. VII , , W0 ЕРМОС ausgelassen zu sein scheint; p. Г'vikkerallyteam.se sind es also wirklich schon zehn jahre, dali ich unserem Hermann zu seinem sechzigsten Geburtstag вышита; john1ron Birch das dicke so dicht gedrängt standen, saßen, sel-loben und pufftcn die Gratulantcn: T J!!!—г ift “за? Birch Abdrücke verschiedener Münzen чоп Iiaulouia im britischen Museum eingegangen, durch welche der Rath` selhalt bleibt aber ein seltsamer Typus, der fälschlich bisher theils als Altar mit Schlange, theils als Dreiful's. East Kent Avenue SE V5X 2X8 Vancouver Carters - Tauranga. Birch Avenue Judea г. Витебск, ул. Мира, 1 Республика Беларусь Беларусь. Birch branch with 7 hanging stars Birch branch with stars Christmas decor #HomeDecor. Birch branch with 7 hanging stars Birch branch with stars Christmas.
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JuliusAvoib 1. JaneJub 1. Francisusard 1. EvaJub 1. Robertpup 1. HildaSen 1. KiaJub 1. LarryFrilt 2. In the southern ring these stones were small and flat, in the northern large, flat and standing on end, with ca.
Remains of burnt blubber were found under the stones at several places. In the neighbourhood were found about 6 temporary meat- stores On one of the southern points of the little island was found — according to Frits Johansen's notes — an oval tent-ring 32 , 2 M.
It lay just on the margin of the beach on the projecting, solid rock. The open- ing for the door, which lay in the longitudinal axis, looked towards the south and from this a small "passage" with 3 small stones on each side led into the tent-rins.
Here were found many tent-rings, 1 shelter, 1 trap, 2 permanent meat-depots and 2 temporary meat-stores, 3 fire-places, 3 sets of rests for kayaks and two other stone structures.
In the bay north of this Naze there is another, smaller point at a distance of 4—5 kilometers from it. Furthest out on this little naze there was a hunting shelter 33 with the opening to- wards the east.
The north and south walls were M. The shelter was built of a single row of small stones and the floorplace was constructed of uniform, solid, beach-materials — small pebbles and gravel.
There are several recognizable shore-lines. The soil is of various composition, fine gravel above on the naze but much coarser material nearer the present beach-line.
The low-lying fore-land of the coast is here broader than further to the south along Germania Land and the Chu. Bendix Thostrup indentations in the land nortli and south of the Naze are deep, so that this stands out somewhat prominently.
The diary of the former contains the following regarding it: "Here tliere are signs of a large Eskimo settlement '. Numerous, up to about 20 tent-rings, partly circular, partly oval and a few square; small fire- places outside the rings; charcoal was found at the bottom of the fire-places.
A couple of well-preserved stone structures with fiat stones on the bottom, open at the one end fox-traps?
Some distance from this we found a square, jjroken down stone-heap resembling a grave, but there was no skeleton in it. Skulls of walrus, teeth and antlers of reindeer were found at the settlement.
Sketch l y the author. Regarding the conditions on the Naze further north, Dr. Lindhard writes further: "Here we found numerous tent-rings'-, some damaged, soiue quite well preserved.
One considerably larger than usual, almost heart-shaped, with very broad entrance, on the one side of the "indentation".
No loose implements were found. Seen from the west. Drawing by the ireenhmder TobiasI, order to examine it more closely — at the special instigation of Dr.
Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements The northern part of the Naze 34 was quite inapproachable owing to the snow.
Particulars of the rests for the kayaks are given in the follow- ing table. K and The northern rest was in part the fixed rock, 2 smallish stones being laid on this and above them a third, larger.
The middle rest was formed of a heap of several large stones and the southern rest was made of many stones, both large and small. The northern rest was built of large and small stones.
Uppermost lay 2 larger stones in touch with one another, so that the ends where they met in the middle lay lower than the outer ends. The middle rest was formed of 5 — 6 large stones, 2 of which almost equal in size lay up- permost.
The fixed rock formed the southern rest, a stone being laid on a small, rocky hummock. The western rest consisted only of two stones, one large and the other somewhat smaller, which lay be- side one another.
The middle rest was formed of several stones. Seen from the south. Drawing y the Greenlander Tobias. Bendix Thostuup The eastern rest was composed of one stone laid on the top of an other.
The trap 38 lay between a permanent and a temporary meat- store 55 and It was M. The heavy sliding door was lying at the side and the hind- most covering stone had been removed.
The door opening faced the south. The trap was quite well preserved. A construction of small stones 39 , in the form of a slight curve, was M.
Tent-rings, permanent and temporary meat-depots were found partly along the south coast of the Naze and partly somewhat higher up, almost on the ridge of the Naze see fig.
On the beach 2 tent-rings were found 40 , but they had been so much disturbed that they could not be measured musk-ox. Door at southern corner of east wall.
Door at east- ern end of south wall. A stone was placed in the middle of the floorplace. An oval tent-ring 46 was found higher up on the Naze, between the beach and the stone remains on the ridge.
From this to the back wall the distance was M. The door opening could not be distinguished. Some bone remains were found scattered about on the ridge of the Naze polar bear, walrus.
Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements Two disturbed tent-rings 47 could not be measured. The outermost of tlie tent-rings lying on the ridge 48 was ob- long, almost oval, with nearly straight sides and rounded ends.
Its long axis was directed east and west. The length was M. The platform had been carefully levelled and occupied the eastern half of the tent-ring.
The floorplace in front of the platform was composed of coarse gravel and small stones. The door opening was M. Outside this close stone-work there was an ordinary tent-ring with stones further apart.
The distance between this external and the close, inner ring was M. Outside the door opening of the compact ring the outer ring took the form of an oval, 1 M.
The outer ring was then the stones for weighting down the skin of the tent and the oval expansion at the door open- ing shows, that the tent has had an "appendix" or a passage.
Quite close to the door opening of this tent in S. It was 46 M. Charcoal was seen here. In the neighbourhood there were 2 disturbed fire- places Close to the tent-ring in the S.
A square-shaped tent-ring 52 was M. No door opening was seen polar bear. A circular, temporary meat-store 53 was formed of large stones, M.
A second, smaller store 54 w as found E. It was 30 M. Bones were found in both walrus. The following data refer to the permanent meat-depots: ' Cf.
VI; Holm 2: p. Bendix Thostrup No. Well built. On the ridge of the Naze. Here 8 tent-rings and 2 — 3 temporary meat-stores were found. The cliffs jut out from the heights behind the low fore-land, which is here not broad, but narrow, flat and gravelly with some stones.
The screw-ice goes close into the Cape and the currents often make openings in the ice off here especially in spring. Both in April and in March there were openings here of wide extent, whilst the greater part of the sea at other places along the coast was still filled with impassable screw-ice.
On a broader, but little prominent point there were 7 tenl-rings about 3 meters above the sea, quite near to the beach, with good shelter from northerly winds.
A couple of temporary meat-stores were also found here The 6 tent-rings 58 lay together, the seventh 59 about 30 meters more to the south.
They were all of oval form, the most southern M. Of the other 6 rings, the smallest was M. Broken, cast antlers of reindeer were found round about.
According to information from Johansen. From the back wall to the platform-edge the distance was M. The floor-place was composed of sharp pointed beach-stones and the platform was not speciallj' level.
The trap door had been removed to the side. Small stones had been chiefly used in the construction of the trap.
The trap to the south 62 was M. The heavy door had been removed to the side and the hindmost covering stone was away. The traps lay ca.
In consequence of this the ground inside was paved with flat stones, so that the animal could not dig its way out. They stood N.
It was oval with a door opening M. From this to the edge of the platform the distance was M. In the north-eastern part of the wall the stones of the tent-ring were placed close together and in a double row.
This ring might possibly be regarded as a "shelter". From these and southwards along the shore 8 other, large, permanent meat- depots 65 lay over a distance of about 50 meters.
In the depots of the northern group we found narwhal bones, the others were empty. I obtained the impression that there had been a large narwhal fishery at this place at one time, and the natives have been obliged to store their booty temporarily and keep watch over it in tent or shelter 63 , until they could get the large, permanent meat-depots built.
The meat had obviously lasted for a long time and the natives have then built the traps which could be attended to when they came to the place to fetch the meat.
Here we found a large settlement Avith 16 winter-houses, 15 tent-rings, 8 permanent meat-depots, ca. Strong westerly storms drive the ice-masses at times as far to the eastward as one can see from the Naze.
In still weather the ice returns in to the coast. There is nearly always movement among the ice off this Naze. The fairway, even for large vessels, goes close in to the land.
The shore to the east is densely en- cumbered bj' screw-ice, but it would be possible to land with the Fig.
Chart prepared by iusT. The depth of water in the large bay south of the Naze is certainly small, as we have never seen very large ice-clumps driven in there.
When frozen over, this bay with its even ice has afforded excellent sledging for the Eskimos. We found almost no drift-wood.
When we con- sider the time which has passed since human beings have lived up there, the transport of drift-wood seems thus to have been ex- tremely small, even if we allow that the ice must have taken much away again, when no one was there to bring it into safety up on the beach.
Furthest out on the Naze a rocky knoll 13 meters high gives an excellent view and large hollows on the north side of the cliff serve in the summer time as good reservoirs for the water from the snow.
Further, there is a small pond, now dried up, near Ethnographic Description of tlie Eskimo Settlements to the west of the cliff.
The shore to the south is steeper than the eastern, but like this level. In winter the snow makes it impos- sible to distinguish where the south beach and the sea ice meet.
At several places on the plain we found many cast rein- deer antlers. Here we found many bones bean-goose, grey gull, feathers , dog, polar bear, walrus, bearded seal, fjord seal, reindeer among which, naturally cast antlers , musk-ox, whale- bone and ribs of the whalebone whale, narwhal.
Some low gra- velly ridges rise in undulations along the coast, parallel to this, and on one of these we found the one set of kayak rests 93, fig.
The winter-houses lie nearest to the south shore see also the chart fig. The place seems to have been occupied the whole year round.
The 16 winter-houses lay close together, with their entrances pointing towards the south or south-east. They were very old and much sunken in the ground and thus very difficult to measure with satisfactory accuracy.
None of these houses were dug out. Details of the winter-houses measured are given in the following table see PI. Beindeer cast antlers , musk ox.
It may be remarked however, that the "Trois tombes" mentioned are included among the stone remains described by me 97 — , which can be seen from the illustration Plan V here: fig.
The Chr. Bendix Thostrup other 11 winter-houses 72 were estimated to be by following table gives details regarding the tent-rings.
Further notes regarding these rings may be given. The phitform had obviously been levelled and the whole floorplace lay somewhat lower than the tent-ring stones.
From the centre of this the distance to the back wall was M. To the south of the ring and close to it there was a fire- place M.
North of the ring lay a permanent meat-depot 79 ; feathers, fjord seal. The tloorplace in the eastern part of the ring had been levelled and has probably been the platform.
In the middle of the ring lay a large Hat stone. Close to the ring in an easterly direction lay Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements Fig.
Drawing by the Greenlander Tobias. In the foreground the Jjroken up tent-ring 82 and to the right or this the permanent meat-depot In the middle ground, a little to the left of the centre of the picture, the permanent meat-depot In the background to the left the tent of the Kxpedition under the rocky knoll on the extreme point of the Naze; almost in the middle of the picture the kayak rests 9?
The room within was M. The 2 sloping stones were sunk a little into the ground. Some tent-rings were possibly not investigated.
To the tent-rings should perhaps be reckoned a compact, oval stone elevation 0"32 M. The following table gives information regarding the permanent meat-depots.
Fjord seal. It was circular, M. A second of the same form 94 and 1 80 M. A third temporary meat-store 92; fig.
It was also circular and its dimensions were: internal diameter M. The dimensions of the kavak rests were as follows: -c?
North South S. The southern stood at the side of the middle one of No third rest was seen. Between the tent-rings 76 and 78 was found a well-preserved Fig.
Seen from tlic west. The toj of llie Expedition's tent is seen lietween the north and middle rests. The southern Avail was a firmly fixed stone, the others were well built to a height of M.
The fire-place was M. The opening was M. Near this fire-place and fire-place 77 was found a third fire-place , built in an old, temporary meat-store Along the east shore were found 4 large stone structures, con- sisting of a round wall of stone with door opening, which might be closed by a stone.
Bendix Thosthui' much against this view. When filled they have then been covered over with ice, snow or skins, as there were no covering stones.
We found no special stone arrangements on the floorplace. The first of these structures 97; fig. Permanent w hale-llcsli depot! Seen Ironi the S.
The stone for the door is hi its iihiee. The stones lay evenly and more regularly than in the three other structures. The door opening, which looked towards the S.
The height of the wall was ca. The floorplace was circular, M. The stones in the wall were not adjusted close to one an- other.
No fallen stones were found either in or near the ruins, to indicate that the wall had been higher; nor was any covering stone found.
The wall arched slightly inwards. The height above the sea was 4 to 5 meters. Parky: pp. Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements The next structure 98; fig.
The height of the wall standing was ca. The floorplace was almost circular, 4 20 M. The third structure 99; fig. Of this one wall was quite wanting, so that only a semi- circular wall remained.
The norlh wall was formed by a solid Fig. Permanent wliale-llehli depot Seen from the east. It was closed with a flat stone.
The height of the wall still standing was very unequal, its thickness at the door was ca. The floorplace has pro- bably been circular, with a diameter of 3 M.
The stones wanting in this structure were not found in the neighbourhood and might well have been removed to be used elsewhere.
The last of these four structures was half destroyed. A door opening M. The latter was so heavy that two men could scarcely lift it. The height of the wall still standing near the door was ca.
The floorplace Chr. Bendix Thosthup was oval, M. The wall was arched a little inwards, so that the cross- section above was less than the diameter of the floorplace.
North of the winter -houses we found a tent- ring about half a kilometer from the shore. It lay on pebbly ground, was oval, M. The door opening looked towards the south and was M.
Permanent whale-llesh depot Seen from tlie E. Shows the door, the door-stone, the wall still standing and the rock which liad formed the north wall.
In the background to the right dei ot! About meters nearer the beach we found an old shore-line, within which there lay 4 tent-rings and about 6 temporary meat-stores Both the rings and the meat-stores were in ruins and of an older appearance.
At several places along this stretch we found old tent-rings and tempor- ary meat-stores , especially on the small, rocky islets.
On one of these, inside the bay, we also found a trap The signs Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements of occupation here were however very scattered and it has prob- ably been of a more occasional nature.
On the north side of the pass-way between the sea-ice and the fjord-ice we found 3, apparently very old tent-rings They were circular, ca.
We found no platform, but almost in the middle of the rings there was a small heap of stones. On the highest part of the island we found a trap at a height of ca.
It was constructed of small stones on the east side of a heap of stones and was not very apparent to the eye.
It was only M. The falHng door was away. The door opening looked towards the S. Here we found 3—4 tent-rings and 3 — 4 temporary meat-stores.
On the south-west side of the Cape we found old tent-rings and temporary meat-stores Underjaws of a few walrus and bones of seals were found at the spot.
Here we found ca. The flat fore-land was covered by sharp pointed stones and had a freshwater pool on the eastern side. On the higher ground lying behind the shore several permanent meat-depots were found, as also a couple of primitive stone ruins of special form.
About 10 tent-rings were seen, 2 to 3 meters in cross- section. In one we found a recognizable, white piece of quartz Chr.
Bendix Thostkup cf. The permanent and temporary meat-stores were large and well-built. Some of the permanent depots were built up along a small cliff to the east of the shore.
One of the higher-lying permanent meat-depots was measured ; fig. The solid rock had been used in its formation and it had the appearance almost of a square hole.
The meat-depot was open and the covering stone removed rolled down. Along the east side of a natural wall in the cliff we found a Fig.
Seen from the K. On the higher ground the hollow cairn I y the authorj. Almost parallel to the wall there lay a longish stone M. From this stone there were stone-pillars reaching obliquely over towards the vertical wall of the cliff.
Two of these pillars were still standing, whilst others were lying down. The pillars alone have not been sufficient to shelter the room, so that they must only be regarded as the skeleton for a lean-toroof.
Skins have possibly been used as final covering. If there has been any door opening, it has been directed towards the south. The floorplace was M.
The height of the space along the wall by the cliff was 1 meter. North of the ruin we found ruins of 2 buildings and ; PI. Ill with one wall in common.
They lay on the east side of a natural wall M. The mode of construction was solid. The many stones lying about show that the walls has been higher.
The part still standing of the common wall was ca. Seen from the norlli. The remaining walls were only up to a height of ca.
Between the door openings the common wall was very broad. The southern room was 2 meters square, with rounded corners.
The northern room was square, 2 M. Both the rooms had the door opening towards the east, M. Garde 1: pp.
Bendix Thostrup 2 ruins there was a small, well-built fire-place ; PI. Ill , which was distinct from the other fire-places we had seen by being closed to all sides.
It was 0'43 M. In this we found charcoal and a piece of wood. On a sledge-journey I investigated the structure more closely and found that it was hollow and built in a most practical manner.
It was slightly arched, almost bee-hive shaped and had an open- ing above. At the base, towards the S. In spite of the fact, that the whole structure only consisted of a thin shell of stone, it was yet so strong, that I was able, though weighing ca.
Sitting inside the structure the stones were sufficiently wide apart to let me have an excellent view of the country through the spaces between the stones.
The height was M. The circumference of the hollow cairn externally was M. Regarding the use made by the Eskimos of this hollow cairn we knew nothing on the Expedition and opinions were many and divided.
One of my comrades, Mr. Hagerup, had however already remarked while we were in Greenland upon its resemblance to the old wooden and stone fox-traps used by the Russians on Spitsbergen and he was quite right.
It is really a fox- trap. For this purpose the one end of a whalebone with a piece of blubber on it was fixed above, so that the bait would be in the middle of the opening.
When the fox stepped out on the piece of whalebone, this seesawed under his weight and the fox fell into the trap, from which it could not climb up again.
Holm 3: p. Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements managed to fall down through the opening in her brother's fox- and raven-trap, so that she killed all the foxes and ravens.
Probably the fox- and raven-trap has been of the same kind as this hollow cairn, as it is certain that neither a fox nor a raven could get out of it again.
Here we found 6 winter- houses, tent-rings, shelters, permanent and temporary meat-stores, fire-places and 3 sets of rests for women's boats.
In bad summers there is open water inside it. The islet has innumerable, sharp, large and small stones and there are not many places where small gravel or pebbles occur.
At the present time the islet is the breeding-ground for quantities of terns and other sea-birds. The north, east and west shores only have a few, large per- manent and temporary meat-stores Further, some shelters occur here.
The south end, on the other hand, is practically "sown" with stone remains. Many large permanent meat-depots , several temporary meat-stores , large and smaller shelters , well built and up to 1 M.
Bones of marine animals and cast antlers of reindeer lay scattered everywhere. Bearded seal, fjord seal, reindeer antlers , Greenland whale.
Of the winter-houses 5 lay to some extent together, in a row directed N. The isolated winter-house is numbered , the others from west to east to In July all the winter-houses were still so completely frozen, that the ice made investigation difficult, but we nevertheless 1 Cf.
Bendix Thostrup succeeded in finding various articles in them. The size was almost the same, except in the case of the easternmost which was only half so large as the others.
In winter-house no bones were found; in and near all the others polar bear; further, in , , narwhal, , , fjord seal, also walrus in ; in musk-ox skull with horn sheath ; in bearded seal and reindeer and in hare.
The winter-house fig. II was the best preserved and was measured to some extent. Seen Ironi the south.
It is clearly seen thai the tloorplace has l een levelled. Hat stones. The ground had not been very much dug out, but the walls were built up above the ground of flatter stones.
The platform was made of gravel and there were side-platforms at each side. The back wall was M. The passage was M. It led out from the front wall 1 M.
In the house we found among other things 2 harpoon heads with bone points. The entrance to the winter-house also led due south, whereas in some of the others there was a bend in the passage.
Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements The houses and lay side by side at a distance of about 1 meter. The passages led out obliquely from the abutting corners of the front walls and met a little way out, continuing afterwards as one passage.
These 2 houses thus form a kind of transition to the common house' PI. The houses were not measured. The various articles found in the winter-houses lay under the roofing stones and on the platforms.
More rarely some were found on the floorplace inside the doorway. In the houses we found among other things: in , a fine little slate-point and a small wooden Fig.
Seen Irom the S. V the author. As already mentioned, the winter-houses were far from being sufficiently examined and the no small number of articles we found with a hasty investigation seem to promise more; but 1 do not believe that the natives can have died out in the winter- houses, as no lamps were found anywhere, though we immediately searched the place on the side-platform where they had stood.
The northern rest was formed of 5 — 6 square-shaped stones which lay above one another. The south rest was made like the northern, but the uppermost stone had fallen.
The northern rest consisted of a single stone standing up on end. The middle rest as well as one of the end rests was partially broken down.
The longitudinal direction of these rests was most probably east to west. Fire-places were seen at several places. The islet Maatten should also be investigated.
Maroussia lat. Here we found 5 winter-houses, 4 tent-rings, permanent and temporary meat-stores and 1 refuse place. Maroussia is a small islet, 26 meters high, which lies ca.
The east, north and south sides are almost steep, but the west side is to some extent accessible. Al- though the islet is only between and meters in cross-section, it nevertheless contains a number of hollows, rocky slopes and isolated rocks.
At several places there are patches of mouldy ground and here lay the winter-houses scattered about at various heights above the sea.
Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements In some of the winter-houses the passage was bent at an angle, but straight passages were also found.
There was no opportunity for close investigation unfortunately, but we succeeded in finding various articles on removing the fallen roof-stones in the winter- houses.
The winter-house PI. II was of very irregular form, with a bend in the passage, but this was due to the rocky ground at the spot.
Women's boat rests 13 5. The north rest is to the right, the middle in the centre of the picture: tlie south rest, somewhat broken down, is to the left of the gray stone in the middle rest.
In the middle ground to the left the island Maroussia. In the house we found a slate knife. II lay about 20 meters south of feathers, dog very old animal , walrus, seals, reindeer antlers.
The east sidewall began with a small recess and ended at passage with a couple of projecting irregularities, but on the other side of the passage between this and the west sidewall the front wall was M.
The house has had small, flat roof-stones. The platform Chr. Bendix Thostrui' consisted of gravel mixed with earth and was covered hy flat stones.
In the winter-house were found eggs-shells of terns M. In the winter-house we found among other things 2 slate knives, one of which was very large.
On the islet were also found 4 tent-rings and many tem- porary and permanent meat-stores , which were placed in a fissure-like depression.
The permanent meat-depots were large and well built. This depression may be regarded as a refuse place , for whereas the surroundings were barren and stony, this was covered with a copious layer of moss, and in and under this we found pieces of kitchen utensils and broken implements, as well as bones dog, fjord seal.
Maroussia may be said to require more examination. Here we found 2 traps. This cape is the south-eastern end of Lille Koldewey and is connected with the remainder of this island by a low-lying part, which to the south continues out in Sonja Havn.
The one trap was built of fairlj' small stones and was placed on what appeared to be a not very favourable spot.
It was much broken down and the falling door as well as most of the covering stones had been removed. The remains of the trap still standing had the dimensions: M.
The second trap lay on a rocky knoll quartz stratum and was solidly built of large stones; it was M. The covering stones had been in part removed and the falling door, which was of gneiss, M.
The traps had the openings towards the land S. Sonja Havn lat. Here we found one trap and some other stone remains. Sonja Havn is a natural harbour, which in a W.
The harbour is deep and safe. On its northern beach lie the first stone remains the Danmark Expedition met with, but unfortunately they were not investigated and when I visited the place in May for this purpose, they were covered over with snow half a meter deep.
We found nearly half a score of stone circles , about 2 to 3 meters in cross-section and about to M. They were constructed of ordinary, somewhat flat stones and they were almost circular, with a small passage directed towards the harbour.
To the left of the passage in a few of the structures we found a small, square annex with the opening in towards the interior of the circle.
I feel quite sure that these were remains of dwelling houses and not meat-stores, and it is very regrettable that there was no opportunity to examine them more closely.
Behind these ruins, about 12 meters above the sea, on the land to the north, we found a couple of stone structures which resembled graves, but on my last visit they were frozen so solidly that I could only uncover them partially.
On the reef which bounds Sonja Havn to the south we found a fox-trap It stood on the edge of the reef, in towards the harbour, about 3 meters above the sea.
The trap was fairly well built of ordinary stones. The opening looked towards the S. The pointed, wedge shaped stone in the back wall of the trap was also in its place; it was M.
The inner space of the trap was M. Rocky islet at Lille Koldewey lat. Here we found 2 temporary meat-stores.
On the side of this islet towards the land lay the temporary meat-stores, a couple of meters from each other and about 5 meler above the sea.
They were square in shape, oblong and lay close to the tidal screw-ice. Bendix Thostrup The one nearest the beach was M.
The first one on the other hand was built on solid rock. The place was rich in large, flat stones, which had also been used to the fullest extent in covering over the meat-stores.
These were completely empty of bones and have perhaps only been of temporary use, for entire and unskinned seals — possibly a very occasional booty in this waste region.
Danmarks Havn lat. Here were found 49 tent-rings, 6 shelters, 15 traps, 12 permanent and 33 temporary meat-stores, 9 fire-places, 1 meat-depot made by children, 1 set of kayak rests, 2 cairns, 1 hare- barrier and 2 other stone remains.
The head of the harbour or north shore is low and 2 rivers have their outlets here; two small lakes salmon was taken in one of them also occur here and a bog.
The latter towards the east changes over to somewhat higher lying ground, which is an outrunner from Termometerfjeldet, a hill north of the harbour about meters high.
Over the outrunner mentioned there is a pass-way for sledges. Towards the west the harbour is bounded by the elongated Harefjeldet', ca.
The peninsula which extends towards the south, is crowded with lakes and small cupola- shaped mounds or hills. Immediately on the arrival of the Expedition at Danmarks Havn 3 tent-rings as also a well-built meat-depot were found on the beach just at the landing place; during the work of disembarking the Expedition, these were unfortunately disturbed before an exact investigation could be made.
Bones of the following species were found at the harbour: hare, polar bear, bearded seal, fjord seal, reindeer with cast antlers among them and musk-ox.
Ethnographic Description of tlie Eskimo Settlements At the head of the harbour to the west side near the two small lakes we found 3 tent-rings, 1 shelter, 7 temporary meat-stores and 1 fire-place.
About 40 meters due south of the smallest lake, on the western slope of a small, rocky knoll, we found a fire-place , open towards the west and only half closed towards the east.
A sloping, flat, thin stone covered over the whole. The square space under this was M. East of the fire-place at a distance of about 60 meters were two oval tent-rings, directly north— south of one another.
The northern was M. The second was M. Feathers were found in No door opening was seen in either of the tent-rings; the tent stones were small and flat; both floorplaces were paved with flat stones, closest in the ring A third tent-ring , a shelter and 2 temporary meat- stores lay 20 meters east of the two tent-rings mentioned.
Tent-ring was constructed of ordinary stones, was circular, 3 M. West of the door opening the tent-ring had a semicircular annex, M.
Shelter had the form of an acute angle and was built of small stones. The meat-stores , which were circular, were 1 M.
On the top of a rocky ridge between the fire-place and tent- rings and were 5 large, round, temporary meat-stores, 4 of which were 1 M.
On the eastern side of the harbour were found 5 traps and 2 cairns. The one lay on the north side of the pass, the others on the south side.
They lay almost in a straight line, so that to find them in winter the highest point on Termometerfjeldet has to be kept in line with an easily seen, black stone, which is always bare of snow, further down on the slope.
This guiding mark was so obvious, that I as a seaman could not fail to notice it, but even those who were not seafarers soon found it out.
Mylius-Erichsen very soon recognized the significance of the mark, when I showed him its Chr.
There can scarcely be any doubt, that the Eskimos, in placing their traps, have also had this mark in mind.
The traps were measured by Mylius-Erichsen. Length Breadth Height Remarks 65 6 Ü15 67 — 68 75 In ruins Found close beside trap Danmarks Havn.
South of these four traps we found a fifth ; fig. It was unusually well-preserved, con- structed of large and medium-large stones, M.
The opening looked towards the east and the falling door had been moved to the side. This trap did not lie in Une with the four above-mentioned, but it was easily seen, as the front covering stone was remarkable for its size and regular form and has certainly served as recognizable mark.
A couple of small cairns , each consisting of 5 to 6 stones. On a slightly projecting unevenness in the coast line, ca. They lay north — south from one another at a distance of 15 meters and were built on the solid rocky knoll, which rose straight from the sea.
The traps were not specially well concealed against the ground. The north trap was OOl M. It was built of tolerably large stones; the opening looked towards the 8 dm.
The door was in its place, but leaning towards a couple of ordinary locking stones. It was a slab of gneiss 2 5 cm thick, of a special form see accompanying sketch.
It was 0'58 M. Its form and position in relation to the trap seem to indicate, as shown in the figure, that it has been meant to turn round a point in the broad end.
The heavy lines of the figure show the door opening and the falling stone in the closed position, the dotted lines the raised stone.
The south trap was M. It was very solidly built and its back wall was formed by a large, flat stone, placed obliquely, which afforded an exceedingly strong fixture.
How the trap was worked, I did not investigate. Bendix Thostrup falling door was found. As in the north trap, the front covering stones had been removed.
The opening looked towards the E. Both the traps were completely blocked up with snow on my visit in February On a similar projection in the coast-line, about meters south of these 2 traps we found 2 others at a height of ca.
They lay N. The north — west trap , which was built of small stones, was M. The door, which was in its place, was of the same form as that to trap see the figure.
It was formed of a slab of gneiss, 1 to 2 cm thick somewhat unevenness in thickness , ca. Entrance to the trap has been very difficult, as an ordinary falling door was placed very close outside the turning door, supported out- side by heaped stones.
This arrangement in conjunction with a small, oblong, rectangular stone, which stood on end between the ordinary falling door and the turning slab, was intended to prevent the latter from being pushed aside by the captured animal.
The front covering stones had been removed and moss was growing in the interior. The south -east trap , which was M. The falling door was away and the covering stones had been removed from both ends of the trap, but the long walls and the back wall still stood.
These traps were also blocked up with snow when I visited them. Further south on the peninsula we found 2 more traps , but they were quite buried in the snow.
On the northernmost part of the east side of Harefjeldet we found a trap lying about meters above the sea.
The opening looked towards E. When the trap was visited in February it was half-filled with snow.
It was built on a bare, windy, ice- marked piece of rocky ground, which stood out from the loose material; it was formed of comparatively small stones with a few larger among them.
It was quite prominent against the land, and Ethnographic Description of the Eskimo Settlements about 6 meters higher up there was further a large, easily re- cognizable stone, whose side towards the trap always stood out black against the white snow and thus formed a good mark of re- cognition.
The Fig. Sketch by the author. The one shelter was found almost on the middle of the ridge forming the Naze, quite meters from the point.
It was built on earth and its floor was partly paved with flat stones; prob- ably the whole floor was originally so paved.
The form of the shelter was almost oval, somewhat pointed at the corners, with the longest axis in the direction north— south; it was M.
The north and west sides were built up of small stones to a height of ca. On the north side of a small natural wall, a couple of meters to the east of the shelter, we found a double, permanent meat- Chu.
Bendix Thostrup depot The two spaces lay east— west of one another and were separated by a wall, which like the outer walls was formed of stones placed on end.
The one on the west side was 0. The one to the east was paved wdth flat stones and was found without a roof; it was M.
South of this permanent meat-depot — at a distance of only 6 meters — we found a small, true copy of it, possibly the work of children It was built exactly like the larger and like this was placed on the north side of a natural wall.
The western compartment was M. The eastern was M. In both the roof was away, though not completely so in the western. The stone remain furthest out on the Naze consisted of a broken down trap Only the long walls, the back wall and the locking stones still remained, the remainder lay scattered about in great dis- order and the falling door was wanting.
The trap was placed on the top of a rocky knoll 1 meter higher than the shelter ; the open- ing looked towards the E. The trap has been M.
An unsually large tent-ring was formed of such large pieces of rock that no one man could have lifted them. Its form Avas almost four-sided, M.
Two door openings occupied almost the whole of the south wall, the one to the west being M. From the platform-edge to the back wall the distance was M.
The stones of the edge of the platform were large and sharp-pointed. The floorplace consisted of gravel. Within the eastern door opening was found a collection of small stones re- sembling a fire-place.
Large stones. In- side doorwav to the left a small collection of sto- nes. Stones sunken. Much disturbed.
Plat- form stones in great disorder. Large stones, lar- ger than one man could lift. In the middle of the ring we found a very conspicuous, white piece of quartz cf.
The shelter was formed of small, flat, longish stones and had the form of an acute angle with the point towards the north. The fire-place was found on the centre of the ridge of the Naze and was open towards the S.
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